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This photo collection represents an effort to document pollen predation in cordaitean cones by arthropods in Coal balls from the Williamson No. 3 Mine in Lucas County, Iowa. The collection features cones at different stages of sexual maturity (immature and mature). Two types of coprolites were been identified in cordiatean cones; brown coprolites composed of partially digested vegetative organs and golden coprolites composed of digested pollen grains (Florinites). These peels were made by Dr. Anne Raymond and are housed at the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Texas A&M University.

The images in this collection were used in the research for a master's thesis in the Department of Geology and Geophysics by Scott Lakeram, "Arthropod Predation of Cordaitean Pollen Cones in Pennsylvanian Coal Balls," submitted in August 2020. To view information about the thesis, go to the following link:

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