Improvement of Low Quality Meat Utilizing Functional Ingredients
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Alternative methods to reduce the variation caused by pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) conditions in meat tissues need to be examined. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if functional ingredients, like hydrocolloids and bicarbonates, improved the quality of PSE and DFD meat. This was accomplished by examining the rheological characteristics of meat model systems and products after enhancement with hydrocolloids and bicarbonates ingredient solutions. These results will be used to formulate and manufacture either enhanced beef steaks, beef roasts, or frankfurters to test the efficacy of use to improve the quality of DFD or PSE meat. The flow behavior, steady-shear viscosity, and dynamic testing of hydrocolloid solutions were determined. Torsion Analysis (TA) and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) were performed on PSE muscle tissue gel samples and frankfurters. Raw and cooked CIE color space values, pH, and sensory evaluation determination were made on meat gel samples, beef steaks, roast beef, and frankfurters. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1.0%HPMC), methylcellulose (1.0%SGMC), and konjac flour (0.125%KF) were found to be Newtonian in behavior. The dynamic moduli of these ingredients were resistant to changes in ionic strength and were tested for viability in a meat model system. Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO) was a viable substitute for sodium bicarbonate. The synergistic effect of combining KHCO with hydrocolloids, salt and sodium phosphate (SP) improved the color, pH, and textural properties of PSE ground pork and frankfurters, but did not effect sensory characteristics. Acetic acid (AA), KF, and xanthan gum (XG) were added to beef steaks and bottom rounds to reduce the meat quality variation caused by high pH and animal age. The addition of AA and hydrocolloid treatments improved the color and pH of high pH muscles and did not appreciable affect shelf-life flavor of cooked roast beef. Solutions of AA, KF and XG were viable enhancement treatments for use in high pH beef bottom rounds to produce a fully cooked roast beef product.
Booren, Betsy Lyn (2008). Improvement of Low Quality Meat Utilizing Functional Ingredients. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from