Race, explicit racial attitudes, implicit racial attitudes, and COVID-19 cases and deaths: An analysis of counties in the United States
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Objectives To examine the potential moderating effects of explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial atti- tudes on the relationship between percent of Black county residents and COVID-19 cases and deaths. Methods We collected data from a variety of publicly available sources for 817 counties in the US. (26% of all counties). Cumulative COVID-19 deaths and cases from January 22 to August 31, 2020 were the dependent variables; explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial attitudes served as the moderators; subjective poor or fair health, food insecurity, percent uninsured, percent unemployed, median family income, percent women, percent of Asian county resi- dent, percent of Hispanic county residents, and percent of people 65 or older were controls. Results The percent of Black county residents was positively associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths at the county level. The relationship between percent of Black residents and COVID- 19 cases was moderated by explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial attitudes. Conclusions Implicit racial attitudes can take on a shared property at the community level and effectively explain racial disparities. COVID-19 cases are highest when both the percent of Black county residents and implicit racial attitudes are high.
DepartmentHealth and Kinesiology
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