Aroma in New Make Whiskey Determined by Maize Variety and Origin
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The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different maize growth location and different maize varieties on new-make whiskey aroma development. Three maize varieties (Dyna-Gro – D57VP51; Mycogen – 2 C797; Terral Seed – REV25BHR26) were selected to grow in three geographically different locations (Calhoun County, TX; Monte Alto, TX; Sawyer Farms, Hillsboro, TX); a fourth location (Perryton, TX) was selected to grow one of the three varieties (Terral Seed – REV25BHR26). The maize was processed into new-make whiskey by the head distiller at Firestone & Robertson Distilling, Company, Fort Worth, TX. A new-make whiskey lexicon was developed and used to train a descriptive aroma panel. The lexicon was also used to test ground maize aroma with minor modifications. New-make whiskey was diluted to 40 proof (20% alcohol by volume) 15 minutes prior to analysis. Maize samples were ground less than an hour prior to trained aroma panel analysis. GC/MS – olfactory new-make whiskey and maize samples were collected on the same day and from the same batch used in sensory analysis. Results were analyzed with the main effects of a 3 x 3 + 1 factorial of a completely randomized design to include all locations and environments; and as a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of a completely randomized design, excluding Perryton, which did not grow all maize varieties. Maize growth location and maize varieties induced differences in new-make whiskey and maize aroma. Maize growth locations and maize varieties created significant (P < 0.05) differences in new-make whiskey volatile composition, affecting acids, alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, esters, furans, ketones, and sulfur-containing compounds; alcohols, aldehydes, and esters were the major volatile compound groups affected while maize varieties most affected alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Maize growth locations, maize varieties, and their interaction showed significant differences in volatiles, fatty acid composition, starch, crude protein, lipid content, as well as estimated alcohol by volume.
Ochoa, Alejandra (2017). Aroma in New Make Whiskey Determined by Maize Variety and Origin. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from