Entropy Spectral Analyses for Groundwater Forecasting
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Forecasting of monthly and annual groundwater levels is important for water resources management, irrigation, and assessment of climate change. This study employs entropy spectral analysis for forecasting monthly groundwater levels. For spectral analysis, the domain of consideration for defining entropy is the frequency domain, in which three types of entropies are known: Burg entropy, configurational entropy, and relative entropy. These entropies lead to three types of spectral analysis: (1) Burg entropy spectral analysis (BESA), (2) configurational entropy spectral analysis (CESA), and (3) relative entropy spectral analysis (RESA). BESA, CESA, and RESA are employed to analyze spectra and forecast monthly groundwater levels, and then they are compared to determine which spectral analysis method better forecasts the monthly groundwater level. Monthly and annual groundwater data were obtained from South Carolina to verify the three methods. Both monthly and annual groundwater level data showed significant decreasing trends at almost all stations. It was found that relative entropy yielded the highest resolution in determining the spectral density, while for simulating groundwater levels, all three methods fitted the observed values well. This was indicated by the average value of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) for BESA, CESA, and RESA being 0.69, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively.
DepartmentBiological and Agricultural Engineering (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences)
Cui, Huijaun; Singh, Vijay P. (2017). Entropy Spectral Analyses for Groundwater Forecasting. Available electronically from
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