Steady-state and equilibrium vortex configurations, transitions, and evolution in a mesoscopic superconducting cylinder
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A numerical scheme to study the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied magnetic field H are presented. Transitions between different multivortex states as H is changed is demonstrated by contour plots and jumps in the B vs H plot. We evolve a uniformly superconducting initial state using the simplest set of relaxation equations. The results reveal that the system passes through nearly metastable intermediate configurations while seeking the final minimum-energy steady state consistent with the square symmetry of the sample. An efficient scheme to determine the equilibrium vortex configuration in a mesoscopic system at any given applied field, not limited to the symmetry of the system, is devised and demonstrated.