Propionibacterium acnes as an immunostimulant
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The use of Propionibacterium acnes as an immunostimulant has been documented in various in vivo studies. Used frequently in the equine industry as a prophylactic treatment against Equine Respiratory Disease Complex (ERDC), P. acnes plays a role in activating the immune system through heightened macrophage function. While this activation is acknowledged, little is known about the specific pathway through which P. acnes act to bring this activation about. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of macrophage activation by P. acnes, studies were carried out using the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with P. acnes in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused the activation of macrophages as observed by the morphological changes. It also caused the induction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in these cells. This induction of iNOS was dose-dependent and synergistic with LPS.
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Includes bibliographical references: leaves 17-19.
King, Andrea L (1998). Propionibacterium acnes as an immunostimulant. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from