Dark world and the standard model
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The most popular way to achieve accelerated expansion of the universe is by introducing a scalar field in which motion of state varies with time. The accelerated expanded universe was first observed by Type Ia supernovae and future confirmed by the latest of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background). The reason for the accelerated universe is the existence of dark energy. In this dissertation, we discuss the relationship between dark matter, dark energy, reheating and the standard model, and we find that it is possible for us to unify dark energy, dark matter and a reheating field into one scalar field. There is a very important stage called inflationary, and we find that the residue of the inflationary field, which is also described by a scalar field, can form bubbles in our universe due to the gravity force. We discuss that these bubbles are stable since they are trapped in their potential wells, and the bubbles can be a candidate for dark matter. We also discuss the scalar singlet filed, with the simplest interaction with the Higgs field, and we find that a static, classical droplet can be formed. The physics picture of the droplet is natural, and it is almost the same as the formation of an oil droplet in water. We show that the droplet is absolutely stable. Due to the very weak interaction with the Standard Model particles, the droplet becomes a very promising candidate for dark matter.
Zhao, Gang (2006). Dark world and the standard model. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from