Investigation of Pseudo-Mutuality, Double Binding and Scapegoating: An Expectation States Approach.
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The author develops a theory, both discursively and formally, of communication ambiguity that can result in the three situations of the title. In a dependent relationship, such as parent-child or teacher-student, an ambiguous message is likely to make prior role relationships salient, and to be interpreted in terms of those roles. For instance, if a child does not understand a teacher’s instructions, the child is likely to fall back upon role-determined beliefs about the teacher’s general values and actions. The process results in stereotyped interactions and often, to undesirable attributions. A different application of the theory of how role relations develop is available (Johnston 1988).
Johnston, Janet R (2015). Investigation of Pseudo-Mutuality, Double Binding and Scapegoating: An Expectation States Approach.. Available electronically from
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