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Model Based Building Chilled Water Loop Delta-T Fault Diagnosis
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Improving chilled water delta-T, which is the temperature difference of chilled water supply and return temperature, in campus buildings that are connected to a central distribution loop will not only improve the power consumption of the building through reduced tertiary (building) pumping power but the impact on the central distribution system and chiller efficiencies will be even greater. A degraded delta-T is almost inevitable and it can be expected to fall to about one-half to two-thirds of design at low loads (Taylor, 2002) due to various causes, such as air entering and leaving temperatures, chilled water supply temperature, type and effectiveness of flow control valves, tertiary connection configuration types and operation, coil cooling loads, air economizers, etc. However, in most variable-flow chilled water with 2-way control valve systems, the root cause of low delta-T is at coil side (Zhang, 2012), for example the geometric configuration of coil. This paper firstly discusses chilled water coil heat exchanger model results to help define methods for detecting opportunities for improved delta-T when analyzing campus building systems for performance optimization measures. Meanwhile, the author developed an effectiveness-NTU cooling coil models for a case study building containing chilled water coils with a range of design configurations to study cooling coil delta-T characteristics under various conditions in order to diagnose the low delta-T imposed on the chilled water distribution loop by the building's chilled water system under various loading conditions. The results show model-based building chilled water Loop delta-T fault diagnosis is an effective way to evaluate existing building chilled water loop delta-T performance and identify avoidable or resoluble causes for improving chilled water loop delta-T.
SubjectChilled water loop Delta-T
Chilled water coil heat exchanger model
Central distribution system
Variable-flow Chilled Water System
Wang, L.; Watt, J.; Zhao, J. (2012). Model Based Building Chilled Water Loop Delta-T Fault Diagnosis. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from