Multipath Router Architectures to Reduce Latency in Network-on-Chips
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The low latency is a prime concern for large Network-on-Chips (NoCs) typically used in chip-multiprocessors (CMPs) and multiprocessor system-on-chips (MPSoCs). A significant component of overall latency is the serialization delay for applications which have long packets such as typical video stream traffic. To address the serialization latency, we propose to exploit the inherent path diversity available in a typical 2-D Mesh with our two novel router architectures, Dual-path router and Dandelion router. We observe that, in a 2-D mesh, for any source-destination pair, there are two minimal paths along the edges of the bounding box. We call it XY Dimension Order Routing (DOR) and YX DOR. There are also two non-minimal paths which are non-coinciding and out of the bounding box created by XY and YX DOR paths. Dual-path Router implements two injection and two ejection ports for parallel packet injection through two minimal paths. Packets are split into two halves and injected simultaneously into the network. Dandelion router implements four injection and ejection ports for parallel packet injection. Packets are split into smaller sub-packets and are injected simultaneously in all possible directions which typically include two minimal paths and two non-minimal paths. When all the sub-packets reach the destination, they are eventually recombined. We find that our technique significantly increases the throughput and reduces the serialization latency and hence overall latency of long packets. We explore the impact of Dual-path and Dandelion on various packet lengths in order to prove the advantage of our routers over the baseline. We further implement different deadlock free disjoint path models for Dandelion and develop a switching mechanism between Dual-path and Dandelion based on the traffic congestion.
Deshpande, Hrishikesh (2012). Multipath Router Architectures to Reduce Latency in Network-on-Chips. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from