The Effect Of Viscoelastic Surfactants Used In Carbonate Matrix Acidizing On Wettability
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Carbonate reservoirs are heterogeneous; therefore, proper acid placement/diversion is required to make matrix acid treatments effective. Viscoelastic surfactants (VES) are used as diverting agents in carbonate matrix acidizing. However, these surfactants can adversely affect wettability around the wellbore area. Lab and field studies show that significant amounts of VES are retained in the reservoir, even after an EGMBE postflush. Optimizing acid treatments requires a study of the effect of VES on wettability. In a previous study using contact angle experiments, it was reported that spent acid solutions with VES only, and with VES and EGMBE are water-wetting. In this thesis, we studied the effect of two amphoteric amine-oxide VES', designated as "A" and "B" on the wettability of Austin cream chalk using contact angle experiments. We extended the previous study by using outcrop rocks prepared to simulate reservoir conditions, by demonstrating that VES adsorbs on the rock using two-phase titration experiments, by studying the effect of temperature on wettability and adsorption, and by developing a detailed procedure for contact angle experiments. We found that for initially oil-wet rocks, simulated acid treatments with VES "A" and "B" diversion stages and an EGMBE preflush and postflush made rocks water-wet at 25, 80, and 110 degrees C. Simulated acid treatments with a VES "A" diversion stage only made rocks water-wet at 25 degrees C. Our results suggest that both VES formulations cause a favorable wettability change for producing oil. The two-phase titration experiments show that both VES "A" and "B" adsorb on the rock surface. From our literature review, many surfactant wettability studies use contact angle measurements that represent advancing contact angles. However, wettability during stimulation is represented by receding contact angles. Results of static receding contact angles may be misinterpreted if low oil-acid IFT's cause oil droplets to spread. Spreading could be a reflection of the effect of the surfactants on the fluid-fluid interface rather than the rock-fluid interface. The new procedure shows the effect of VES and EGMBE on the rock-fluid interface only, and so represents the actual wettability.
Adejare, Oladapo (2012). The Effect Of Viscoelastic Surfactants Used In Carbonate Matrix Acidizing On Wettability. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from