Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions for the Synthesis of Significant Chiral Building Blocks
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Morita Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction a carbon-carbon bond forming reaction between an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and aldehydes or activated ketones in the presence of a nucleophilic catalyst. The MBH reaction is an atom-economical method of rapid increase of molecular complexity. The development of this process has received considerable attention in recent years. This dissertation presents the development of a new catalytic system for the symmetric and asymmetric MBH reaction. The new system for the racemic version of this reaction was accomplished employing a 1:1:1 ratio of catalytic amounts (10 mol%) of MgI2, TMEDA and DMAP and proved to be highly effective. For the asymmetric version was developed a highly enantio-selective system based on Fu’s planar chiral DMAP derivative (II) with ee´s up to 98%. Abnormal MBH adducts are obtained employing either ethyl 2,3-butadienoate or ethyl propiolate in good yields, in the presence if MgI2 and either a tertiary amine or phosphine as the nucleophile. The α,β-unsaturated carbonyls where prepared by a modified direct α- methylenation using paraformaldehyde, diisopropylammonium trifluoroacetate, and catalytic acid or base with excellent yields for several carbonyls compounds. The Negishi cross-coupling reaction is the Pd or Ni-catalyzed stereoselective cross-coupling or organozincs and aryl-, alkenyl-, or alkynyl halides. Enantioselective Negishi cross-coupling of aryl zincs and α-bromo ketones was accomplished employing a NCN Pincer complex as the catalyst with ee´s up 99%. The required pincer complexes have been prepared by the oxidative addition of pincer ligands with palladium or nickel. Additionally, It has been developed a direct and highly active, (NCN)-Pd catalytic system for the α-arylation of ketones with a variety of aryl bromides using the air and moisture stable [t-BuPheBox-Me2]PdBr (XVI) as the catalyst. The adducts are obtained in excellent yields (92% average for 20 examples) in only 1 hour using 1 mol% of catalyst loading. Perhaps more importantly, the work described here shows that XVI is highly reactive, highly selective, even on substrates bearing challenging functional groups such alkenes.
Bugarin Cervantes, Alejandro (2011). Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions for the Synthesis of Significant Chiral Building Blocks. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from