Research on Combinatorial Statistics: Crossings and Nestings in Discrete Structures
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We study the distribution of combinatorial statistics that exhibit a structure of crossings and nesting in various discrete structures, in particular, in set partitions, matchings, and fillings of moon polyominoes with entries 0 and 1. Let pi and y be two set partitions with the same number of blocks. Assume pi is a partition of [n]. For any integers l, m >̲ 0, let T (pi, l) be the set of partitions of [n + l] whose restrictions to the last n elements are isomorphic to pi, and T (pi, l, m) the subset of T (pi, l) consisting of those partitions with exactly m blocks. Similarly define T (pi, l) and T (y, l, m). We prove that if the statistic cr (ne), the number of crossings (nestings) of two edges, coincides on the sets T (pi, l) and T (pi, l) for l = 0; 1, then it coincides on T (pi, l, m) and T (y, l, m) for all l, m >̲ 0. These results extend the ones obtained by Klazar on the distribution of crossings and nestings for matchings. Moreover, we give a bijection between partially directed paths in the symmetric wedge y = +̲ x and matchings, which sends north steps to nestings. This gives a bijective proof of a result of E. J. Janse van Rensburg, T. Prellberg, and A. Rechnitzer that was first discovered through the corresponding generating functions: the number of partially directed paths starting at the origin confined to the symmetric wedge y = +̲ x with k north steps is equal to the number of matchings on [2n] with k nestings. Furthermore, we propose a major index statistic on 01-fillings of moon polyominoes which, when specialized to certain shapes, reduces to the major index for permutations and set partitions. We consider the set F(M, s, A) of all 01-fillings of a moon polyomino M with given column sum s whose empty rows are A, and prove that this major index has the same distribution as the number of north-east chains, which are the natural extension of inversions (resp. crossings) for permutations (resp. set partitions). Hence our result generalizes the classical equidistribution results for the permutation statistics inv and maj. Two proofs are presented. The first is an algebraic one using generating functions, and the second is a bijection on 01-fillings of moon polyominoes in the spirit of Foata's second fundamental transformation on words and permutations.
Poznanovikj, Svetlana (2010). Research on Combinatorial Statistics: Crossings and Nestings in Discrete Structures. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from