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Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement
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Flow measurement is a complex and application related discipline. It borders on being an art rather than a science, and as such it has developed its own mystique, traditions and customs. While it is true that no meter is universally applicable to all situations, the orifice has been more widely used in industrial settings than any other flowmeter. Unfortunately this legacy has carried the usage of orifice meters into now measurement applications where it is poorly suited, but who could argue when it was the best choice available. No area typifies this situation more than the problem of measuring steam flows. While the orifice has a number of draw back for steam flow measurement, it is superior to the only alternative available (until recently) - the condensate meter. This being the situation, the stage was set for the development and introduction of new technology.
Rusnak, J. J. (1983). Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement. Energy Systems Laboratory (http://esl.tamu.edu); Texas A&M University (http://www.tamu.edu). Available electronically from