The relationship of time perspective to time allocation, recreation experience preferences, and wellness
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Time perspective, as measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), has been empirically linked to many behaviors including health behaviors, time spent with family and friends, and career decisions. This dissertation research builds on investigations of time perspective by testing hypotheses about the relationship between each of ZimbardoÃ¢ÂÂs five time perspectives with residual time allocation, recreation experience preferences, and health and life satisfaction. Using a short questionnaire and time diary data, the relationship between how individuals frame time in the present, past, or future and how they allocate their discretionary time is described. Findings provide the foundation for continued study of the relationship of time perspective and recreation. Next, the relationship between an individualÃ¢ÂÂs time perspective and the benefits they seek from recreation are identified. Using results from a selfadministered mail questionnaire, hypotheses about the benefits sought by adults with different time perspectives are tested. Finally, results from the mail questionnaire are again used to test hypotheses about the relationship between time perspective, physical health, psychological health and life satisfaction. Findings provide information about the impact of different time perspectives on individual wellness and happiness. Moreover, results provide a tool for targeting adults in need of leisure education. In summary, this study provides a starting point for the use of time perspective in leisure research. Much replication, extension and application research will be required to extend findings from current results using student and general population samples. The dissertation is organized in four sections. An introductory section presents the theoretical orientation for research. The second, third, and fourth sections explicate the relationship of ZimbardoÃ¢ÂÂs five time perspectives with residual time allocation, benefits sought from recreation, and health and life satisfaction.
Shores, Kindal Alayne (2005). The relationship of time perspective to time allocation, recreation experience preferences, and wellness. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from