Pharmacokinetics of albuterol and butorphanol administered intravenously and via a buccal patch
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Conventional routes of drug administration have several disadvantages. The rate and extent of absorption can vary greatly depending on the drug, its formulation, the presence or absence of food, drug interactions, and the pH of gastrointestinal fluids. Extensive first-pass metabolism can greatly reduce the absorption of many drugs. Better dosage forms or drug delivery mechanisms could minimize some of these problems. The pharmaceutical industry has recognized the need for, and has developed many new, novel drug delivery systems. Drugs that previously experienced diminished effective concentrations due to the first-pass effect may now be given by a novel route. The dosing frequency of many drugs may be reduced when administered by a novel route or site. Transmucosal drug delivery (TMDD) via the buccal mucosa is one site that is suited to rapid drug absorption and systemic delivery. Drugs selected for TMDD must have physiochemical properties that will allow them to penetrate the mucosa and produce therapeutic blood concentrations. This study utilized a buccal patch less than 1.5 cm in length to deliver albuterol and butorphanol-two drugs with dissimilar physiochemical properties. The purpose of this study was to establish pharmacokinetic parameters and the bioavailability of albuterol and butorphanol when administered intravenously and buccally. Three dogs weighing at least 20 kg were studied using a randomized crossover design, each receiving albuterol and butorphanol by buccal and intravenous administration. Blood samples were collected and analyzed using ELISA. Values for pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using compartmental and non-compartmental models. For albuterol, extrapolated Cmax and Co after buccal and IV administration were 10.28 ± 2.77 and 57.74 ± 9.04 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 2.13 ± 1.30 L/kg and Cl was 4.73 ± 3.91 ml/min/kg. A significant difference existed between the disappearance rate constant of buccal and intravenous albuterol administration. The disappearance half-lives of buccal and IV albuterol were 160.96 ± 24.19 and 364.20 ± 115.20 min, respectively. The bioavailability of buccally administered albuterol was 35%. Maximal concentration (Cmax) and Co after buccal and IV butorphanol administration were 6.66 ± 1.65 and 8.24 ± 5.55 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 27.58 ± 10.14 L/kg and Cl was 137.87 ± 19.55 ml/min/kg. The half-life of buccally administered butorphanol was 259.15 ± 33.12 min and the half-life of IV butorphanol was 172.12 ± 94.95 min. The bioavailability of buccally administered butorphanol was 606%. The buccal patch used in this study achieved systemic concentrations for both albuterol and butorphanol. Further studies are needed to determine if therapeutic drug concentrations can be achieved with the buccal patch and if the patch can result in clinical efficacy.
Vaughan, Deirdre Faye (2006). Pharmacokinetics of albuterol and butorphanol administered intravenously and via a buccal patch. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from