|dc.description.abstract||The chromosomal location of endocrine genes was established, and relationships between expression of specific endocrine genes and measures of testis function in normal and poor semen quality stallions was assessed. Consensus primer sequences for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were used to screen the CHORI-241 equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The identity of PCR-positive BAC clones was confirmed by sequencing. Verified BACs were mapped to horse metaphase chromosome spreads by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The BACs containing the GR and LHR were localized by FISH to ECA 14q16-q21 and ECA15q22-q23, respectively. In addition to FISH mapping, the 5000rad horse x hamster radiation hybrid (RH) panel was screened in duplicate. Two-point linkage analysis placed GR 0 cR from LEX047, while LHR was 36.67 cR from TKY011 on ECA14 and ECA15, respectively. Total testicular parenchymal weight, mean daily sperm production (DSP) per gram parenchyma and mean apoptotic rate (406.05 Â± 24.33g vs. 180.01 Â± 34.41g, 15.29 Â± 0.87 vs. 10.24 Â± 1.10, 6.70 Â± 0.88 vs. 14.25 Â± 1.11, respectively) differed (P<0.05) between normal (n=8) and poor semen quality (n=5) stallions. Also, plasma estradiol and inhibin concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in normal stallions than in poor semen quality stallions. Testicular expression
of estrogen receptor beta (ER beta), βB inhibin, prolactin receptor (PRLR), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNAs were all lower (P<0.05) in poor semen quality stallions than in normal stallions.
The BACs and primers developed in this study will facilitate future investigations of GR and LHR gene structure in the horse as well as providing a resource for physiological investigation of these two genes that are primary regulators of stress responsiveness and fertility. These data add important endocrine genes to the horse cytogenetic map. Also, important hormonal and gene expression changes have been identified in poor semen quality stallions for further investigation.||en