Power Management ICs for Internet of Things, Energy Harvesting and Biomedical Devices
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This dissertation focuses on the power management unit (PMU) and integrated circuits (ICs) for the internet of things (IoT), energy harvesting and biomedical devices. Three monolithic power harvesting methods are studied for different challenges of smart nodes of IoT networks. Firstly, we propose that an impedance tuning approach is implemented with a capacitor value modulation to eliminate the quiescent power consumption. Secondly, we develop a hill-climbing MPPT mechanism that reuses and processes the information of the hysteresis controller in the time-domain and is free of power hungry analog circuits. Furthermore, the typical power-performance tradeoff of the hysteresis controller is solved by a self-triggered one-shot mechanism. Thus, the output regulation achieves high-performance and yet low-power operations as low as 12 µW. Thirdly, we introduce a reconfigurable charge pump to provide the hybrid conversion ratios (CRs) as 1⅓× up to 8× for minimizing the charge redistribution loss. The reconfigurable feature also dynamically tunes to maximum power point tracking (MPPT) with the frequency modulation, resulting in a two-dimensional MPPT. Therefore, the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) are enhanced and flattened across a wide harvesting range as 0.45 to 3 V. In a conclusion, we successfully develop an energy harvesting method for the IoT smart nodes with lower cost, smaller size, higher conversion efficiency, and better applicability. For the biomedical devices, this dissertation presents a novel cost-effective automatic resonance tracking method with maximum power transfer (MPT) for piezoelectric transducers (PT). The proposed tracking method is based on a band-pass filter (BPF) oscillator, exploiting the PT’s intrinsic resonance point through a sensing bridge. It guarantees automatic resonance tracking and maximum electrical power converted into mechanical motion regardless of process variations and environmental interferences. Thus, the proposed BPF oscillator-based scheme was designed for an ultrasonic vessel sealing and dissecting (UVSD) system. The sealing and dissecting functions were verified experimentally in chicken tissue and glycerin. Furthermore, a combined sensing scheme circuit allows multiple surgical tissue debulking, vessel sealer and dissector (VSD) technologies to operate from the same sensing scheme board. Its advantage is that a single driver controller could be used for both systems simplifying the complexity and design cost. In a conclusion, we successfully develop an ultrasonic scalpel to replace the other electrosurgical counterparts and the conventional scalpels with lower cost and better functionality.
Internet of Things
Liu, Xiaosen (2016). Power Management ICs for Internet of Things, Energy Harvesting and Biomedical Devices. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from