Nonpolar phase-soluble metathesis catalysts
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One embodiment of the invention provides polyisobutylene (PIB) oligormers that are end-functionalized with ruthenium (Ru) catalysts. Such nonpolar catalysts can be dissolved in nonpolar solvents such as heptane, or any other nonpolar solvent that is otherwise not latently biphasic (i.e., if two or more solvent components are present, they remain miscible with each other throughout the entire reaction process, from the addition of substrate through to the removal of product). Substrate that is dissolved in the nonpolar solvent with the catalyst is converted into product. The lower solubility of the product in the nonpolar solvent renders it easily removable, either by extraction with a more polar solvent or by applying physical means in cases where the product precipitates from the nonpolar solvent. In this manner the catalysts are recycled; since the catalysts remain in the nonpolar solvent, a new reaction can be initiated simply by dissolving fresh substrate into the nonpolar solvent.
Bergbreiter, David E.; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Hongfa, Chayanant (2016). Nonpolar phase-soluble metathesis catalysts. United States. Patent and Trademark Office; Texas A&M University. Libraries. Available electronically from