Method and apparatus for direct counterfactual quantum communication
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It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel in empty space between two parties (the Sender and the Receiver), “physically real” entities have to travel between the parties. The recently discovered technique of interaction-free measurement—wherein the presence of an object is inferred without the object directly interacting with the interrogating light—has caused this basic assumption to be questioned. This technique has found application in quantum key distribution in the form of counterfactual quantum key distribution—albeit with limited efficiency. In the present invention, using the “chained” quantum Zeno effect, this logic is taken to its natural conclusion and, in the ideal limit, information can be transferred between the Sender and the Receiver without any physical particles whatsoever traveling between them.
Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail; Li, Zhenghong; Al-amri, Mohammad D.; Salih, Hatim A. (2014). Method and apparatus for direct counterfactual quantum communication. United States. Patent and Trademark Office; Texas A&M University. Libraries. Available electronically from