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Developing and Testing an Innovative Architectural Programming Simulation as a Precursor to Target Value Design
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More than half of international construction projects are underperforming. Project success has been correlated with two key factors including managing cost to achieve efficiencies and creating and improving values. Cost overruns remained ubiquitous. Many factors and reasons were identified for construction project cost overruns. Poorly defined scope of work ranked as the one of the highest reasons for poor performance over which owners and construction stakeholders have control. An owner’s requirements and expectations are specified during the programming phase of a project and these define a design’s scope of work. One main focus of Target Value Design (TVD) is making owners’ value a primary driver of design by improving project definition during programming — thus optimizing the design phase. While recently the number of published research praising TVD has been increasing, there is a lack of information regarding the application of architectural programming of a project to TVD. The purpose of this research is to report on a study aiming to develop and test a lean game designed by the author of this research, to outline the importance of architectural programming and its effects on construction projects. This simulation was tested at Texas A&M University. The author described findings from testing an innovative lean game and administrating to participants a post-game questionnaire. Preliminary results suggest that this lean simulation appears valid for conveying the necessity of including systematic architectural programming at the start of building cost design exercises such as TVD. Ultimately, the simulation can be further improved based on collected feedback from participants.
Target Value Design
Owners’ requirements and expectations
Solhjou Khah, Fatemeh (2018). Developing and Testing an Innovative Architectural Programming Simulation as a Precursor to Target Value Design. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from