Experimental Study of the Vaporization Of Cryogenic Liquids on Solid Substrates
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Many safety challenges are associated with the production, handling and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) due to its hazardous properties and nature that is significantly different than any other hydrocarbons, namely very low temperature. One such challenge includes prediction of the vaporization rate of LNG during the potential loss of containment. The vaporization rate is vital for the assessment of the risk associated with such event and their mitigation. The present work focuses on the contribution of conductive heat flux on the vaporization rate of cryogens. A series of small-scale, laboratory experiments were designed to carry out the spill of cryogenic liquids on solid substrates. The effects of type of cryogenic liquid (pure or binary mixture), type of solid substrate (concrete or steel) and surface roughness on the vaporization rate of the cryogens were studied. Three boiling regimes, film, transition and nucleate, were observed during the experiments. The effect of surface roughness was observed to be in agreement with that of non-cryogenic liquids. The effect of mixture composition on its boiling rate were in good agreement with the experimental data available for cryogen spill on water. Obtained experimental data were used to validate couple of predictive mathematical models, namely 1D ideal conduction through semi-infinite solid and film/nucleate boiling regimes model. Both models did not represent experimental data well and they need severe improvement to be able to predict the complete boiling process.
Sadia, Asma (2015). Experimental Study of the Vaporization Of Cryogenic Liquids on Solid Substrates. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from