Examining Depression and Anxiety by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Residence in South Central Texas
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The current study is an extension and replication of a previous study that examined the severity of depressive symptoms and rates of probable depression assessed by different instruments, the CESD-5 and PHQ-9, in two separate surveys (2006, 2010), among residents in predominately rural regions of South Central Texas. The current study examines the rate of depression, and the associations between depression, race/ethnicity, gender, and residence in a sample of 5,230 participants. Participants included individuals from various ethnic groups including White/Caucasian, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Native American. Participants ranged in age from 18-99 years old. The study expands on previous work by examining the rate of anxiety and the link between anxiety, race/ethnicity, gender, and residence. The study utilized two reliable and valid measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7). We found the same pattern in the rates of depression reported in the previous study. The current study revealed that Black/African American, female, rural area respondents had higher percentages of depression and anxiety.
Frazier, Chantel Gale (2017). Examining Depression and Anxiety by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Residence in South Central Texas. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from