Practical Approach to Surge and Surge Control Systems
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This paper addresses the area of compressor stability, surge and surge control and relates to the practical aspects involved. An emphasis is placed on the physical understanding of surge phenomena and on the practical limitations of surge control systems. Topics discussed are physical interpretation of instability, causative factors, types of stall, machine and process design factors, surge effects and characteristics, control system types and practical application aspects. Some case studies also are presented. The discussion primarily relates to centrifugal compressors, but several aspects pertain to axial flow compressors as well. The paper is split into three sections: Section A consists of an introduction to surge and a discussion of centrifugal compressor design and process factors that affect operating stability. Section B discusses the various types of control schemes and surge protection devices. Several examples and common pitfalls are addressed. Section C addresses the important design tool, surge system simulation. Several references are provided to enable the reader to pursue this topic in greater detail.
Boyce, Meherwan P.; Bohannan, William R.; Gaston, John R.; Meier, Robert H.; Brown, Royce N.; Meher-Homji, Cyrus; Pobanz, Norbert E. (1983). Practical Approach to Surge and Surge Control Systems. Texas A&M University. Turbomachinery Laboratories. Available electronically from