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Low Power Analog to Digital Converters in Advanced CMOS Technology Nodes
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The dissertation presents system and circuit solutions to improve the power efficiency and address high-speed design issues of ADCs in advanced CMOS technologies. For image sensor applications, a high-performance digitizer prototype based on column-parallel single-slope ADC (SS-ADC) topology for readout of a back-illuminated 3D-stacked CMOS image sensor is presented. To address the high power consumption issue in high-speed digital counters, a passing window (PW) based hybrid counter topology is proposed. To address the high column FPN under bright illumination conditions, a double auto-zeroing (AZ) scheme is proposed. The proposed techniques are experimentally verified in a prototype chip designed and fabricated in the TSMC 40 nm low-power CMOS process. The PW technique saves 52.8% of power consumption in the hybrid digital counters. Dark/bright column fixed pattern noise (FPN) of 0.0024%/0.028% is achieved employing the proposed double AZ technique for digital correlated double sampling (CDS). A single-column digitizer consumes total power of 66.8μW and occupies an area of 5.4 µm x 610 µm. For mobile/wireless receiver applications, this dissertation presents a low-power wide-bandwidth multistage noise-shaping (MASH) continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CT-ΔΣM) employing finite impulse response (FIR) digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and encoder-embedded loop-unrolling (EELU) quantizers. The proposed MASH 1-1-1 topology is a cascade of three single-loop first-order CT-ΔΣM stages, each of which consists of an active-RC integrator, a current-steering DAC, and an EELU quantizer. An FIR filter in the main 1.5-bit DAC improves the modulator’s jitter sensitivity performance. FIR’s effect on the noise transfer function (NTF) of the modulator is compensated in the digital domain thanks to the MASH topology. Instead of employing a conventional analog direct feedback path, a 1.5-bit EELU quantizer based on multiplexing comparator outputs is proposed; this approach is suitable for highspeed operation together with power and area benefits. Fabricated in a 40-nm low-power CMOS technology, the modulator’s prototype achieves a 67.3 dB of signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR), 68 dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and 68.2 dB of dynamic range (DR) within 50.5 MHz of bandwidth (BW), while consuming 19 mW of total power (P). The proposed modulator features 161.5 dB of figure-of-merit (FOM), defined as FOM = SNDR + 10 log10 (BW/P).
SubjectCMOS image sensor digitizer
correlated double sampling
fixed pattern noise
analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
delta-sigma modulator (ΔΣM)
multistage noise-shaping (MASH)
finite impulse response (FIR)
Liu, Qiyuan (2017). Low Power Analog to Digital Converters in Advanced CMOS Technology Nodes. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from