Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process
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This research describes the zeolite use in the oligomerization and catalytic ketonization steps of the MixAlco™ process. In this dissertation, the following six products associated with the MixAlco™ process were studied: acetic acid, mixed acids, acetone, mixed ketones, isopropanol, and mixed alcohols. The effect of the temperature (T), weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), type of catalyst, feed composition, and pressure (P) were studied. For the isopropanol and mixed alcohol reactions, the following conditions were used: HZSM-5 (280, moles of silica per mole of alumina = 280), T = 300–510°C, WHSV = 0.5–11.5 h^(–1), and P = 101, 5000, and 8000 kPa. The temperature, WHSV, and pressure affect the type of reaction that occurs: n-merization, disproportionation, and cracking. For acetone, the following conditions were used: HZSM-5 (80), T = 305–415°C, WHSV = 1.3–11.8 h–1, and P = 101 kPa. For mixed ketone, the effect of temperature (T = 400–590 °C) was evaluated at P = 101 kPa and WHSV = 1.9 h^(–1). HZSM-5 rapidly deactivated during the ketone reaction. Medium-molecular-weight olefins (1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene) were dimerized using Beta (25) zeolite catalyst in a batch reactor. For the dimerization reaction, the following conditions were used: Beta (25), T = 170–270°C, t = 7 h, and P = 101 kPa. The maximum conversion achieved was 57%. For the catalytic ketonization of acetic acid and mixed acids, the following conditions were used: ZrO2 catalyst, T = 300–410°C, WHSV = 2.5–8.5 h^(–1), and P = 101 kPa. Acetic acid conversion was 100% at low WHSV and temperatures over 400°C. For mixed acids, maximum conversion was 95%. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign transforming paper and chicken manure into gasoline and jet fuel. In total, 100 L of jet fuel were obtained. Finally, an integrated approach to obtain gasoline and jet fuel in the MixAlco™ process using LINGO optimization software is presented.
Taco Vasquez, Sebastian (2013). Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from