The Effect of a Comprehensive English Language/Literacy Intervention in Bilingual Classrooms on the Development of English Reading Fluency for English-Language Learners, Grades 2-3
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English-language learners (ELLs) demonstrate lower levels of English reading proficiency than do native English-speaking students. Oral reading fluency (ORF), the number of words read correctly in 1 min, is one indicator of reading proficiency. Within second language (L2) reading research, there have been few studies of L2 ORF development. The purposes of this study were to: (a) model the trajectory (i.e., initial status and growth) of English ORF in Grades 2 and 3 for Spanish-speaking ELLs in bilingual education programs, and (b) determine the effect of a 4-year structured intervention in English language and reading on L2 ORF development. Data were archived from Project ELLA, a longitudinal, randomized study documenting ELLs' acquisition of English language and reading from kindergarten through third grade. Data included 1,470 observations of English ORF from 283 ELLs at 17 schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=8) or control (n=9) condition. In intervention schools, a one-way dual language program and a comprehensive ESL intervention were implemented. The intervention emphasized L2 oral language development in kindergarten and first grades, basic L2 reading skills in second grade, and content-area reading skills in third grade. In the control schools, the district's typical transitional bilingual education program and ESL curricula were implemented. L2 ORF was measured using DIBELS ORF on six occasions. Piecewise multilevel growth models were used for data analysis. In Grades 2 and 3, ELLs followed a two-stage linear growth trajectory in English ORF, with a large decrease in level between grades. Slope parameters were positive in both grades but decreased slightly in third grade. Participating in Project ELLA added 1.52 wcpm per month to students? ORF scores in Grade 2. Both intervention and control groups improved at the same rate in Grade 3; however, intervention students maintained the higher level of ORF that was attained during second grade. Therefore, the ELLA intervention accelerated L2 ORF growth in second grade, such that intervention students read with greater fluency compared to control students throughout second and third grades.
Subjectmultilevel linear models
English as a second language
second language reading development
oral reading fluency
Trevino, Elizabeth Pauline, 1978- (2012). The Effect of a Comprehensive English Language/Literacy Intervention in Bilingual Classrooms on the Development of English Reading Fluency for English-Language Learners, Grades 2-3. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from
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