National human resource development in the developing world: the Republic of Kazakhstan
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The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to explore, describe and define the emerging construct of Human Resource Development (HRD) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RKZ). The second was to examine specific national contexts and associated challenges affecting the necessary nature for thought and practice of HRD at the national level (NHRD) in the RKZ. The second chapter was focused on exploring HRD—how it was constructed, and currently practiced and needed—in Kazakhstan. The third chapter examined National Human Resource Development (NHRD) in the Republic of Kazakhstan. This study was exploratory and descriptive in nature. A systematic literature review approach was adopted to serve the nature of the inquiry, address the overarching research question and sub-questions, and fulfill the two-fold purpose of the study. The findings of the study are: 1. Government structures, the educational system, and business utilization are environmental factors which appear to be influencing and shaping the emergence and definition of HRD in the RKZ. The driving forces are interdependently economic, political, and social in nature. 2. HRD and NHRD are emerging constructs in the RKZ. 3. A working definition of HRD in the RKZ is the first step towards developing and defining a construct of HRD at the national level. 4. Sound HRD and NHRD strategies have the potential to improve the educational system of the country. 5. Factors impeding successful implementation of NHRD in the RKZ include: a) problems in the system of education; b) issues related to the current knowledge and understanding of HRD; and c) socio-economic problems; 6. Factors enhancing successful implementation of NHRD in the RKZ include: a) recognition by the government of the RKZ of the importance of education; b) an estimated literacy rate of around 99%; and free secondary education; c) a transfer of expertise by international agencies. 7. The challenges of development, implementation, and evaluation of HRD strategies are: a shortage of high-level manpower, an outflow of talented people, and a constantly changing demographic situation. Evaluation of NHRD strategies is hampered by an underdeveloped system of data collection and imprecise HRD concepts and definitions.
Kenzhegaranova, Madina (2008). National human resource development in the developing world: the Republic of Kazakhstan. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from