Accurate Measurements and Modeling of the PpT Behavior of Pure Substances and Natural Gas-Like Hydrocarbon Mixtures
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The scale of the energy business today and a favorable and promising economic environment for the production of natural gas, requires study of the thermophysical behavior of fluids: sophisticated experimentation yielding accurate, new volumetric data, and development and improvement of thermodynamic models. This work contains theoretical and experimental contributions in the form of 1) the revision and update of a field model to calculate compressibility factors starting from the gross heating value and the mole fractions of diluents in natural gas mixtures; 2) new reference quality volumetric data, gathered with state of the art techniques such as magnetic suspension densimetry and isochoric phase boundary determinations; 3) a rigorous first-principles uncertainty assessment for density measurements; and 4) a departure technique for the extension of these experimental data for calculating energy functions. These steps provide a complete experimental thermodynamic characterization of fluid samples. A modification of the SGERG model, a standard virial-type model for prediction of compressibility factors of natural gas mixtures, matches predictions from the master GERG-2008 equation of state, using least squares routines coded at NIST. The modification contains new values for parametric constants, such as molecular weights and the universal gas constant, as well as a new set of coefficients. A state-of-the-art high-pressure, single-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter is used to perform density measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. This work contains data on nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a typical residual gas mixture (95% methane, 4% ethane, and 1% propane). Experimental uncertainty results from a rigorous, first-principles estimation including composition uncertainty effects. Both low- and high-pressure isochoric apparatus are used to perform phase boundary measurements. Isochoric P-T data can determine the phase boundaries. Combined with density measurements, isochoric data provides isochoric densities. Further mathematical treatment, including noxious volume and thermal expansion corrections, and isothermal integration, leads to energy functions and thus to a full thermodynamic characterization.
Mantilla, Ivan (2012). Accurate Measurements and Modeling of the PpT Behavior of Pure Substances and Natural Gas-Like Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from