Citrus Bioactive Compounds: Isolation, Characterization and Modulation of Bacterial Intercellular Communication and Pathogenicity
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The secondary metabolites of citrus such as limonoids and flavonoids constitute an important part of human diet. The present work was undertaken to elucidate the effect of citrus limonoids and flavonoids on the bacterial cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. The first experiment was focused on purification of limonoids from grapefruit and sour orange seeds. The limonoids were extracted using organic solvents and purified by chromatographic techniques. A total of ten limonoids (7 aglycones and 3 glucosides) were purified. Currently, simultaneous measurement of aglycones and glucosides of limonoids is not available. To address this limitation, an analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography was developed with the capability of measuring both aglycones and glucosides in a single run. Furthermore, its applicability in the fruit and juice samples was demonstrated. The third study investigated the V. harveyi cell-cell signaling inhibitory potential of purified limonoids. Isolimonic acid, ichangin, obacunone and nomilin were showed potent inhibitory activity. Furthermore, isolimonic acid and ichangin inhibit the signal transduction pathway by up-regulating the response regulator luxO. Isolimonic acid was also found to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cell-cell signaling in the fourth study. The results demonstrated that isolimonic acid inhibits the autoinducer/epinephrine mediated cell-cell signaling, biofilm and virulence in QseBC and QseA dependent fashion. Further investigations using limonin analogues, in the fifth study, demonstrated that the analogue limonin-7-methoxime inhibited the E. coli biofilm in type 1 pili and antigen 43 dependent-fashion, by preventing the binding of the adhesins to plastic surfaces. Another limonoid, obacunone was demonstrated to attenuate the Salmonella virulence by repressing Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) in EnvZ/OmpR dependent mecahnism. The seventh study showed that naringenin, among the flavonoids, was the most potent inhibitor of V. harveyi and E. coli O157:H7 cell-cell signaling. Furthermore, naringenin was found to repress the (SPI-1) in PstS-HilD dependent fashion in the eighth study. In conclusion, the current project identified several limonoids and flavonoids with cell-cell signaling inhibitory property in three bacterial species.
Vikram, Amit (2011). Citrus Bioactive Compounds: Isolation, Characterization and Modulation of Bacterial Intercellular Communication and Pathogenicity. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from