Finite Element Analysis of Ballistic Penetration of Plain Weave Twaron CT709® Fabrics: A Parametric Study
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The ballistic impact of Twaron CT709® plain weave fabrics is studied using an explicit finite element method. Many existing approximations pertaining to woven fabrics cannot adequately represent strain rate-dependent behavior exhibited by the Twaron fabrics. One-dimensional models based on linear viscoelasticity can account for rate dependency but are limited by the simplifying assumptions on the fabric architecture and stress state. In the current study, a three-dimensional fabric model is developed by treating each individual yarn as a continuum. The yarn behavior is phenomenologically described using a three-dimensional linear viscoelastic constitutive relation. A user subroutine VUMAT for ABAQUS/Explicit® is developed to incorporate the constitutive behavior. By using the newly developed viscoelasticity model, a parametric study is carried out to analyze the effects of various parameters on the impact behavior of the Twaron fabrics, which include projectile shape and mass, gripping conditions, inter-yarn friction, and the number of fabric layers. The study leads to the determination of the optimal number of fabric layers and the optimized level of inter-yarn friction that are needed to achieve the maximum energy absorption at specified impact speeds. The present study successfully utilizes the combination of 3D weave architecture and the strain rate dependent material behavior. Majority of the existing work is based either on geometry simplification or assumption of elastic material behavior. Another significant advantage with the present approach is that the mechanical constitutive relation, coded in FORTRAN®, is universal in application. The desired material behavior can be obtained by just varying the material constants in the code. This allows for the extension of this work to any fabric material which exhibits a strain-rate dependent behavior in addition to Twaron®. The results pertaining to optimal number of fabric layers and inter-yarn friction levels can aid in the manufacturing of fabric with regard to the desired level of lubrication/additives to improve the fabric performance under impact.
Gogineni, Sireesha (2010). Finite Element Analysis of Ballistic Penetration of Plain Weave Twaron CT709® Fabrics: A Parametric Study. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from