The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia
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This study examined the relationship of holistic scoring with handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy and number of T-units within compositions written by children in grades 3 through 6 using path analysis. A sample of 223 compositions was rated for handwriting legibility and composition quality, and coded for number of T-units and percentage of accurately spelled words. Number of T-units was consistently the strongest predictor of holistic scoring across the four grade levels. Handwriting legibility and spelling accuracy yielded varying results in different grade levels.
Hooten, Regina (2009). The Effects of Handwriting, Spelling, and T-Units on Holistic Scoring with Implications for Dysgraphia. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Available electronically from