Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorCunningham, George B.en_US
dc.creatorBenavides Espinoza, Claudiaen_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-07-15T00:12:22Zen_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-07-23T21:43:51Z
dc.date.available2010-07-15T00:12:22Zen_US
dc.date.available2010-07-23T21:43:51Z
dc.date.created2009-05en_US
dc.date.issued2010-07-14en_US
dc.date.submittedMay 2009en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-05-509en_US
dc.description.abstractSexual harassment is associated with negative consequences for victims and bystanders. Because 9 in 10 victims do not report harassment, understanding bystanders' reactions to sexual harassment is important. Thus, my dissertation?s purpose was to advance the literature by analyzing bystanders' responses to sexual harassment by means of three studies. In Study 1, I examined bystanders' preferred punishment as a function of the harassment type and organizational culture. Participants were undergraduates (N=107) enrolled in physical activity classes at a Southwestern United States university (males n=53, 50%, females n=53, 50%; largely Caucasian n=79, 74.5%; age M=21.61, SD=2.70). The results indicate that harassment type affected bystanders' punishment preferences (B=.55, p<0.01). While the workplace culture did not directly affect punishment preferences (B=-.06, p=0.49), it moderated the relationship between harassment type and preferred punishment (R2=.03, B=.31, p&lt;0.05) such that quid-proquo harassment in proactive organizations resulted in the harshest punishment recommendations. In Study 2, I analyzed bystanders' reactions to different punishment levels delivered to the harasser. Participants were undergraduates (N=122) enrolled in activity classes at a Southwestern United States university (males n=68, 56.2%, females n=53, 43.8%; largely Caucasian n=94, 77.7%; age M=20.00, SD=2.00). The results revealed that congruity, or lack thereof, between their preferred punishment and the actual punishment affected their negative emotions (R2=0.04, B=-0.30, p&lt;0.01), organizational justice perceptions (R2=0.11, B=0.47, p&lt;0.01), and cultural consistency beliefs (R2=0.02, B=0.19, p&lt;0.05). In Study 3, I investigated bystanders? responses to different harassment levels as influenced by the organizational culture. Participants were undergraduates (N=183) enrolled in activity classes at a Southwestern United States university (males n=113, 61.7%, females n=66, 36.1%; largely Caucasian n=132, 72.1%; age M=19.84, SD=1.37). The results indicated that the harassment severity was positively associated with bystanders' intentions to intervene (B=.32, p&lt;0.001). The type of organizational culture did not affect willingness to act (B=-.07, p=0.32), possibly given the personal investment required by taking action. Alternatively, personal characteristics (i.e., political views) may supersede environmental influences. Collectively, these findings reiterate literature documenting harassment types? differential severity. Also, they outline additional advantages to promoting a proactive organizational culture. Finally, the influence of individual and environmental factors in decision making is highlighted.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.subjectSexual Harassment, Bystanders, Organizational culture, Punishment, Responses, Reactionsen_US
dc.titleBystanders' Reactions to Sexual Harassmenten_US
dc.typeBooken
dc.typeThesisen
thesis.degree.departmentHealth and Kinesiologyen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineKinesiologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorTexas A&M Universityen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_US
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberSinger, John N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberBatista, Paulen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberKirkman, Bradleyen_US
dc.type.genreElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.type.materialtexten_US


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record