Phylogeny and biogeography of the mayfly family Leptohyphidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) with a taxonomic revision of selected genera
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A cladistic analysis of the world genera of the mayfly family Leptohyphidae is presented. Analyses of a matrix of 58 ingroup and 9 outgroup species and 119 morphological characters strongly supports the monophyly of Leptohyphidae and its sister-group relationship with Coryphoridae. Larval and adult taxonomic keys are provided to the 11 recognized extant genera. A synonymical listing, differential diagnosis, list of proposed synapomorphies, diagnostic illustrations, and notes on distribution and included species are given for each genus. The following new synonyms of genus Tricorythodes are proposed: Ableptemetes n. syn., Cabecar n. syn., Epiphrades n. syn., Homoleptohyphes n. syn., Macunahyphes n. syn., Tricoryhyphes n. syn. The former genus Asioplax is newly regarded as a subgenus of Tricorythodes. A species-level revision of North and Central American Leptohyphes is presented. A key to the 15 Leptohyphes species known as larvae is provided. In addition, detailed descriptions, diagnosis, and geographic distributions are given for all species of Leptohyphes known from North and Central America. Biogeographic analysis suggests that the family Leptohyphidae originated in South America, and that its North American species are the descendants of one or more ancestral species that crossed northward over the Panamanian land bridge. The results of this research clearly show that the mayfly family Leptohyphidae is a strongly supported monophyletic clade supported by five unique synapomorphies. Currently recognized genera are also strongly supported; however, little support was found for subfamilies. The sister family is clearly Coryphoridae, which is supported by three unique synapomorphies. Biogeographic analysis indicates that Leptohyphidae originated in South American, with at least five independent invasions from South America to North and Central America during the evolution of Leptohyphidae.
Baumgardner, David Eugene (2008). Phylogeny and biogeography of the mayfly family Leptohyphidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) with a taxonomic revision of selected genera. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from