Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in pancreatic and breast cancer cells by Sp proteins
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Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is a key angiogenic factor, and angiogenesis is an important physiological process associated with neovascularization, growth, and metastasis of many different tumors. The mechanism of VEGFR2 gene expression was investigated in MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells transfected with a series of VEGFR2 promoter deletion/mutated constructs, and the results indicated that the GC-rich Ã¢ÂÂ60 to Ã¢ÂÂ37 region of the promoter was essential for VEGFR2 expression in these cell lines. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Sp proteins are expressed and bind to the proximal GC-rich region of the VEGFR2 promoter. RNA interference studies on Sp proteins demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 all contributed to VEGFR2 gene/protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells. VEGFR2 gene expression was also investigated in ZR-75 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ZR-75 cells treated with 10 nM 17b-estradiol (E2) increased VEGFR2 mRNA levels/protein expression. The VEGFR2 promoter was induced by E2 in ZR-75 cells, and analysis of the VEGFR2 promoter identified the GC rich -60 to -37 region that was required for E2-mediated transactivation. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 proteins are expressed in ZR-75 cells and bind the proximal GC-rich region of the VEGFR2 promoter. RNA interference was used to determine the relative contributions of Sp proteins on hormonal regulation of VEGFR2 through ER/Sp complexes, and interestingly, in ZR-75 cells, hormone-induced activation of VEGFR2 involves ERa/Sp3 and ERa/Sp4 but not ERa/Sp1. In MCF-7 cells treated with 10 nM E2, VEGFR2 mRNA levels were decreased. Analysis of the VEGFR2 promoter revealed that the same GC-rich region important for E2-mediated upregulation in ZR-75 cells was responsible for E2-dependent downregulation of VEGFR2 gene expression in MCF-7 cells. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 proteins are expressed in MCF-7 cells and bind to the proximal GC-rich region of the VEGFR2 promoter. RNA interference studies showed that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 are involved in the E2-mediated downregulation of VEGFR2 in MCF-7 cells, and ERa/Sp protein-promoter interactions are accompanied by recruitment of the corepressor SMRT using the ChIP assay.
Higgins, Kelly Jean (2003). Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in pancreatic and breast cancer cells by Sp proteins. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from