Supersonic turbulent boundary layers with periodic mechanical non-equilibrium
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Previous studies have shown that favorable pressure gradients reduce the turbulence levels and length scales in supersonic flow. Wall roughness has been shown to reduce the large-scales in wall bounded flow. Based on these previous observations new questions have been raised. The fundamental questions this dissertation addressed are: (1) What are the effects of wall topology with sharp versus blunt leading edges? and (2) Is it possible that a further reduction of turbulent scales can occur if surface roughness and favorable pressure gradients are combined? To answer these questions and to enhance the current experimental database, an experimental analysis was performed to provide high fidelity documentation of the mean and turbulent flow properties along with surface and flow visualizations of a high-speed ( 2.86 M = ), high Reynolds number (Re 60,000 q ÃÂ» ) supersonic turbulent boundary layer distorted by curvature-induced favorable pressure gradients and large-scale ( 300 s k + ÃÂ» ) uniform surface roughness. Nine models were tested at three separate locations. Three pressure gradient models strengths (a nominally zero, a weak, and a strong favorable pressure gradient) and three roughness topologies (aerodynamically smooth, square, and diamond shaped roughness elements) were used. Highly resolved planar measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity components were accomplished using particle image velocimetry. Stagnation pressure profiles were acquired with a traversing Pitot probe. Surface pressure distributions were characterized using pressure sensitive paint. Finally flow visualization was accomplished using schlieren photographs. Roughness topology had a significant effect on the boundary layer mean and turbulent properties due to shock boundary layer interactions. Favorable pressure gradients had the expected stabilizing effect on turbulent properties, but the improvements were less significant for models with surface roughness near the wall due to increased tendency towards flow separation. It was documented that proper roughness selection coupled with a sufficiently strong favorable pressure gradient produced regions of Ã¢ÂÂnegativeÃ¢ÂÂ production in the transport of turbulent stress. This led to localized areas of significant turbulence stress reduction. With proper roughness selection and sufficient favorable pressure gradient strength, it is believed that localized relaminarization of the boundary layer is possible.
Ekoto, Isaac Wesley (2006). Supersonic turbulent boundary layers with periodic mechanical non-equilibrium. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from