Potential impacts of vertical cable seismic: modeling, resolution and multiple attenuation
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Vertical cable seismic methods are becoming more relevant as we require high quality and high resolution seismic data in both land and marine environments. Our goal in this thesis is to demonstrate the impacts of vertical cable surveying in these areas. Vertical cable methods have been applied to the marine environment with encouraging results. Data quality is similar to that of traditional towed-streamer data, without the long, cumbersome towed-streamers which are difficult to maneuver in congested areas. The current marine vertical cable processing schemes tend to use primaries and receiver ghosts of primaries for imaging. Therefore, we demonstrate the ability of the current multiple attenuation algorithms developed by Ikelle (2001) to preserve either primaries or the receiver ghosts of primaries. As we focus on land acquisition, we discover that vertical cable surveying can overcome many of the traditional problems of land seismics. In fact, our investigations lead us to believe that problems such as ground roll, guided waves and statics can be avoided almost entirely using vertical cable acquisition methods. Furthermore, land vertical surveying is naturally suited for multi-component acquisition and time-lapse surveying. To fully analyze the applicability of vertical cable surveys in marine and land environments, we also investigate the problem of cable spacing and sampling within each cable. We compare the resolution of vertical cable data and horizontal data by calculating the maximum angular coverage of each acquisition geometry and measuring the occurrence of each angle within this coverage, such that more occurrences means better resolution. From our investigations, we find that by using vertical cables of no more than 500 m in length at 500 m intervals, we can acquire higher resolution seismic data relative to horizontal surface methods for an image point, horizontal reflector or a dipping reflector. The key tool used in these investigations is fully elastic finite-difference modeling. We chose this technique based on its ability to properly and accurately model the full wavefield through complex models, all the while preserving amplitudes and the phase of reflected, diffracted and converted wavefields.
Wilson, Ryan Justin (2005). Potential impacts of vertical cable seismic: modeling, resolution and multiple attenuation. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from