Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron
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Fe(II)-based degradative solidification/stabilization (Fe(II)-DS/S) technology is the modification of conventional solidification/stabilization (S/S). Inorganic pollutants are immobilized by Fe(II)-DS/S while organic pollutants are destroyed. Experimental studies were conducted to identify the active agents for Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) degradation as well as the conditions that enhance the formation of the active agents in the Fe(II)-DS/S system. PCE was chosen as a model chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon in this study. First, the conditions that lead to maximizing production of the active agents were identified by measuring the ability of various chemical mixtures to degrade PCE. Results showed that Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca, and Cl were the the important elements that affect degradation activity. Elemental compositions of the mixtures and the conditions affecting solid formation might be the important factors in determining how active solids are formed. Second, instrumental analyses (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDS) were used to identify minerals in chemical mixtures that have high activities. Results indicate that active agents for PCE degradation in Portland cement slurries and in cement extracts might be one of several AFm phases. However, systems without cement did not form the same solids as those with cement or cement extract. Ferrous hydroxide was identified as a major solid phase formed in systems without cement. Finally, the effect of using different types of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on PCE degradation rate during Fe(II)-DS/S was examined and the solids were examined by instrumental analyses (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDS). Four different OPC (Txi, Lehigh, Quikrete, and Capitol) showed different PCE degradation behaviors. Pseudo first-order kinetics was observed for Capitol and Txi OPC and second-order kinetics was observed for Quikrete. In the case of Lehigh cement, pseudo first-order kinetics was observed in cement slurry and second-order kinetics in cement extract. Calcium aluminum hydroxide hydrates dominated solids made with Txi, Quikrete, and Lehigh cements and FriedelÂs salt was the major phase found in solids made with Capitol cements. Fe tended to be associated with hexagonal thin plate particles, which were supposed to be a LDH.
Ko, Sae Bom (2003). Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from