Phylogenetic analysis of tribe habrolepidini and revision of Homalopoda and Ceraptroceroideus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)
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A taxonomic and phylogenetic study of the tribe Habrolepidini is described. A cladistic analysis was carried out in order to establish the phylogenetic relationships of the supraspecific taxa of the tribe. An illustrated key for the identification at the level of genera is included. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis, the diagnosis and taxonomic descriptions of the recognized taxa are presented. A single most parsimonius parsimony tree was obtained from the cladistic analysis based on 67 morphological characters, generated by a two-step procedure using PAUP. Initially, heuristic searches considering all characters with equal weights resulted in three equally parsimonious trees. Then the method of successive approximation weighting was applied to the three trees. The values of statistic parameters of the most parsimonious tree are: length = 582 steps; consistency index = 0.4966, retention index = 0.5850. The results support the hypothesis that the tribe Habrolepidini is monophyletic. It is defined by the presence of a specialized ventral mandibular tooth that is formed through modification of a seta into a stout socketed spine and three more unambiguous characters, clava length from 2.57 to 3.28, small hexagonal sculpture of scutellum and sensilla in three circles in a straight line. The inclusion of the genera Anthemus, Arrenophagoidea, Arrenophagus, Thomsonisca and Zaomma into Habrolepidini is supported by the presence of the mandibular tooth or by sister group relationships to other taxa with the mandibular tooth. The revision of the genera Ceraptroceroideus and Homalopoda is included; the taxonomic revision of each genus includes a key, diagnosis, descriptions and illustrations for all the species.
Rodriguez Velez, Beatriz (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of tribe habrolepidini and revision of Homalopoda and Ceraptroceroideus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from