Automatic history matching in Bayesian framework for field-scale applications
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Conditioning geologic models to production data and assessment of uncertainty is generally done in a Bayesian framework. The current Bayesian approach suffers from three major limitations that make it impractical for field-scale applications. These are: first, the CPU time scaling behavior of the Bayesian inverse problem using the modified Gauss-Newton algorithm with full covariance as regularization behaves quadratically with increasing model size; second, the sensitivity calculation using finite difference as the forward model depends upon the number of model parameters or the number of data points; and third, the high CPU time and memory required for covariance matrix calculation. Different attempts were used to alleviate the third limitation by using analytically-derived stencil, but these are limited to the exponential models only. We propose a fast and robust adaptation of the Bayesian formulation for inverse modeling that overcomes many of the current limitations. First, we use a commercial finite difference simulator, ECLIPSE, as a forward model, which is general and can account for complex physical behavior that dominates most field applications. Second, the production data misfit is represented by a single generalized travel time misfit per well, thus effectively reducing the number of data points into one per well and ensuring the matching of the entire production history. Third, we use both the adjoint method and streamline-based sensitivity method for sensitivity calculations. The adjoint method depends on the number of wells integrated, and generally is of an order of magnitude less than the number of data points or the model parameters. The streamline method is more efficient and faster as it requires only one simulation run per iteration regardless of the number of model parameters or the data points. Fourth, for solving the inverse problem, we utilize an iterative sparse matrix solver, LSQR, along with an approximation of the square root of the inverse of the covariance calculated using a numerically-derived stencil, which is broadly applicable to a wide class of covariance models. Our proposed approach is computationally efficient and, more importantly, the CPU time scales linearly with respect to model size. This makes automatic history matching and uncertainty assessment using a Bayesian framework more feasible for large-scale applications. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using synthetic cases and a field example. The field example is from Goldsmith San Andres Unit in West Texas, where we matched 20 years of production history and generated multiple realizations using the Randomized Maximum Likelihood method for uncertainty assessment. Both the adjoint method and the streamline-based sensitivity method are used to illustrate the broad applicability of our approach.
generalized travel time misfit
Randomized Maximum Likelihood
Mohamed Ibrahim Daoud, Ahmed (2004). Automatic history matching in Bayesian framework for field-scale applications. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from