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    • Energy Conservation Through Water Usage Reduction in the Semiconductor Industry 

      Mendicino, L.; McCormack, K.; Gibson, S.; Patton, B.; Lyon, D.; Covington, J. (Energy Systems Laboratory (, 1998-04)
      The semiconductor industry uses large amounts of Ultrapure Water (UPW) in the wafer fabrication process. Producing UPW involves energy-intensive operations, such as membrane separations, ultraviolet lamps, and continuous ...