Radio frequency circuits for wireless receiver front-ends
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The beginning of the 21st century sees great development and demands on wireless communication technologies. Wireless technologies, either based on a cable replacement or on a networked environment, penetrate our daily life more rapidly than ever. Low operational power, low cost, small form factor, and function diversity are the crucial requirements for a successful wireless product. The receiver??s front-end circuits play an important role in faithfully recovering the information transmitted through the wireless channel. Bluetooth is a short-range cable replacement wireless technology. A Bluetooth receiver architecture was proposed and designed using a pure CMOS process. The front-end of the receiver consists of a low noise ampliﬁer (LNA) and mixer. The intermediate frequency was chosen to be 2MHz to save battery power and alleviate the low frequency noise problem. A conventional LNA architecture was used for reliability. The mixer is a modiﬁed Gilbert-cell using the current bleeding technique to further reduce the low frequency noise. The front-end draws 10 mA current from a 3 V power supply, has a 8.5 dB noise ﬁgure, and a voltage gain of 25 dB and -9 dBm IIP3. A front-end for dual-mode receiver is also designed to explore the capability of a multi-standard application. The two standards are IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth. They work together making the wireless experience more exciting. The front-end is designed using BiCMOS technology and incorporating a direct conversion receiver architecture. A number of circuit techniques are used in the front-end design to achieve optimal results. It consumes 13.6 mA from a 2.5 V power supply with a 5.5 dB noise ﬁgure, 33 dB voltage gain and -13 dBm IIP3. Besides the system level contributions, intensive studies were carried out on the development of quality LNA circuits. Based on the multi-gated LNA structure, a CMOS LNA structure using bipolar transistors to provide linearization is proposed. This LNA conﬁguration can achieve comparable linearity to its CMOS multi-gated counterpart and work at a higher frequency with less power consumption. A LNA using an on-chip transformer source degeneration is proposed to realize input impedance matching. The possibility of a dual-band cellular application is studied. Finally, a study on ultra-wide band (UWB) LNA implementation is performed to explore the possibility and capability of CMOS technology on the latest UWB standard for multimedia applications.
Xin, Chunyu (2004). Radio frequency circuits for wireless receiver front-ends. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from