Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites
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This research investigated whether 4D construction model effectively helps project participants on construction sites in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule. Previous researchers on construction space management typically modeled space requirements for equipment and paths for material and focused primarily on static or dynamic layout planning. Some researchers regarded time-space conflicts as an essential aspect of construction space management. They demonstrated the use of 4D modules in time-space conflict analysis. Although these 4D prototypes have been successful in tackling time-space conflict analysis, they have been validated with only post-hoc analysis of construction projects. Also, various currently commercially available 4D visualization softwares do not take into account the workspace required during the construction of a component unless space is modeled as a separate component into the CAD application. Therefore, without modeling space as a component in the 3D model it is necessary to assess whether 4D visualization can be effectively used on construction sites to detect time-space conflicts in the schedule. In order to fulfill the research goal an experiment was conducted. A 4D construction model of an ongoing project was developed. Project participants were introduced to two different graphic representations of the schedule; namely, an overlay drawing - the conventional method used on site to detect conflicts and the 4D construction model. Analysis of the results compared the performance of the participants in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule using the two methods. The experiment produced empirical evidence that a 4D construction model may be effective on construction sites in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule.
Nigudkar, Narendra Shriniwas (2005). Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from