Fostering creativity: a meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects
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The present study used the method of meta-analysis to synthesize the empirical research on the effects of intervention techniques for fostering creativity. Overall, the average effect sizes of all types of creativity training were sizable, and their effectiveness could be generalized across age levels and beyond school settings. Generally, among these training programs, CPS (Creative Problem Solving) spent the least training time and gained the highest training effects on creativity scores. In addition, ??Other Attitudes programs,?? which presumed to motivate or facilitate the creativity motivation, also presented sizable effect size as other types of creativity training programs. As for the issue of creativity ability vs. skills, this analysis did not support the notion that figural components of the TTCT (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) might be measuring the relatively stable aspects of creativity proposed by Rose and Lin (1984). Because the figural form of the TTCT did not obtain the lowest effect size, the results indicated that the view of multi-manifestation of creativity is a more plausible explanation. And since neither the Stroop Color and Word Test or the Raven Progressive Matrices was found in the studies, this issue was difficult to investigate further. From the path-model analysis, it can be implied that a research design with a control group and student sample would more likely lead to publication, which would influence the effect size index. Unfortunately, from the information provided in the articles included in this study, there were not any quantitative data about motivation or related measurement of the participants, which is a major problem and impedes this study for creating a better path-model. This study has many implications which merit investigation. One approach follows the concepts of aptitude-treatment interactions, which is focused on each individual??s unique strengths and talent, and the goals of a creativity training program should help them to recognize, to develop their own creative potential, and finally to learn to express it in their own way. Another involves developing the assessment techniques and criteria for individuals as well as collecting related information regarding attitudes and motivation during the training process.
Huang, Tse-Yang (2005). Fostering creativity: a meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from