Evaluation of the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems
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The goal of this research was to evaluate the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems and the recovery of emitter flow rates. Emission volume in the field, and laboratory measured flow rates were determined for emitters from three locations. Additionally, the effects of lateral orientation with respect to slope on emitter plugging was evaluated. Two different emitters were tested to evaluate slope effects on emitter plugging (type Y and Z). The emitters were alternately spliced together and installed in an up and down orientation on slopes of 0, 1, 2 and 4% and along the contour on slopes of 1 and 2%. The emitters were covered with soil and underwent a simulated year of dosing cycles, and then flushed with a flushing velocity of 0.6 m/s. Initial flow rates for the two emitter types were 2.38 L/hr with a C.V. of 0.07. There was no significant difference in flow rates among slopes for type Y emitters, but there was a significant difference between the 1% and 2 % contour slopes for type Z emitters. Application uniformity of three different laterals at each site was evaluated. Sections of the lateral from the beginning, middle and end were excavated and emission volumes were recorded for each emitter. Application uniformity of laterals ranged from 48.69 to 9.49%, 83.55 to 72.60%, and 44.41 to 0% for sites A, B, and C, respectively. Mean emitter flow rate was 2.21, 2.24, and 2.56 L/hr for sites A, B, and C, respectively under laboratory conditions. Application uniformity under laboratory conditions ranged from 70.97 to 14.91%, 86.67 to 79.99%, and 85.04 to 0.00% for sites A, B, and C, respectively. A flushing velocity of 0.15 m/s with no chlorination, shock chlorination of 3400 mg/L and flushing velocity of 0.15 m/s, and shock chlorination of 3400 mg/L and flushing velocity of 0.6 m/s treatment regiments were applied to all laterals collected to assess emitter flow rate recovery to the nominal flow rate published by the manufacturer. All laterals showed an increase in the number of emitters within 10% of the published nominal flow rate.
Subjectsubsurface drip distribution
Weynand, Vance Leo (2003). Evaluation of the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University. Available electronically from