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Sorghum Bran as an Antioxidant in Frozen Meat and Poultry Products
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Synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), or natural antioxidants such as rosemary extract, are common antioxidants used in meat products to retard lipid oxidation. Research has shown that sorghum bran has antioxidant properties in meat. The objective was to evaluate antioxidant development, pH, color, and sensory attributes of High Tannin and Onyx sorghum brans in fresh (Phase 1) and frozen (Phase 2) ground pork and ground chicken products. In Phase 1, ground pork and dark meat chicken thighs, were ground, mixed, and equally divided into one of 11 treatments: 1) Control-no added ingredients; 2) BHA and BHT at 0.01% of the meat weight; 3) Rosemary at 0.2%; 4, 5, 6 and 7) 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% Onyx sorghum bran, respectively; and 8, 9, 10 and 11) 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% high tannin sorghum (HTS), respectively. Patties and crumbles were cooked, packaged aerobically and stored at 4°C for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days under fluorescent lighting. Products were re-heated (day 1 and 3) and served to an expert, trained meat descriptive flavor and texture descriptive attribute panel, and TBARS, pH, instrumental color, and subjective color (days 0, 1, 3 and 5). In Phase 2, ground pork (20% lipid) and dark meat chicken leg and thigh meat, respectively, were ground and mixed into four treatments: 1) Control – no added antioxidant; 2) 0.20% Rosemary plus green tea extract (Kemin Fortium™, RGT12 Plus Dry Natural Plant Extract, Des Moines, IA); 3) 0.5 % of HTS bran; and 4) 0.5 % of Onyx sorghum bran. Pork pizza toppings and ground chicken were cooked, frozen, packaged aerobically and stored for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months at Tyson Foods at -23°C. On 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo of storage, frozen cooked pork pizza toppings and ground chicken was evaluated as defined in Phase I. In Phase 1, TBARS values increased (P < 0.0001) in control pork crumbles and chicken patties, but samples with higher levels of HTS or Onyx sorghum bran, and BHA/BHT did not increase. Treatments affected CIE L* and b* color space values. The higher sorghum bran addition resulted in darker colored products. Sorghum, brown roasted, bitter, umami, heated oil, refrigerator stale, and sweet sensory attributes differed (P < 0.05) across treatments in the chicken patties. In Phase 2, control pizza toppings had higher TBARS values with increased storage; however, rosemary and sorghum bran addition resulted in similar TBARS at each storage time (P < 0.0001). TBARS values were highest (P < 0.01) for control fully cooked dark meat ground chicken compared to treated product. As storage time increased, TBARS values did not change. Sorghum bran addition resulted in darker, redder products, but subjective color did not change with storage. Control products had slightly higher refrigerator stale and warmed over flavor than treated products (P < 0.001). Products containing rosemary had more off-flavors associated with rosemary than either the control or the sorghum bran addition. The addition of antioxidants provided much more protection against lipid oxidation than controls. However, the addition of sorghum bran, especially Onyx sorghum bran, resulted in slightly darker, less red and yellow meat products.
Waters, Crystal Michelle (2017). Sorghum Bran as an Antioxidant in Frozen Meat and Poultry Products. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from