Characterization of a Broadly Reactive Anti-CD40 Agonistic Monoclonal Antibody for Potential Use as an Adjuvant
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Lack of safe and effective adjuvants is a major hindrance to the development of efficacious vaccines. Signaling via CD40 pathway leads to enhanced antigen processing and presentation, nitric oxide expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by antigen presenting cells, and stimulation of B-cells to undergo somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin class switching, and proliferation. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies have shown promising adjuvant qualities in human and mouse vaccine studies. An antiCD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 2E4E4, was identified and shown to have strong agonistic effects on primary cells from multiple livestock species. The mAb recognize swine, bovine, caprine, and ovine CD40, and evoked 25 fold or greater proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these species relative to cells incubated with an isotype control (p<0.001). In addition, the mAb induced significant nitric oxide (p<0.0001) release by bovine macrophages. Furthermore, the mAb upregulated the expression of MHC-II by PBMCs, and stimulated significant p<0.0001) IL-1α, IL-6, IL- 8, and TNF-α expression by PBMCs. These results suggest that the mAb 2E4E4 can target and stimulate cells from multiple livestock species and thus, it is a potential candidate for adjuvant development. This the first study to report an anti-swine CD40 agonistic mAb that is also broadly reactive against multiple species.
Martin, Cameron Lee (2017). Characterization of a Broadly Reactive Anti-CD40 Agonistic Monoclonal Antibody for Potential Use as an Adjuvant. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from