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Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Achievement Goals among Physical Education Preservice Teachers
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The ultimate goal of education is to develop self-regulated learners. To teach students self-regulation, teachers must have knowledge and skills of self-regulated learning (SRL). Utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this dissertation addressed the dearth of SRL research among physical education (PE) preservice teachers. Specifically, four research questions guided this dissertation: (1) How do PE preservice teachers define SRL? (2) To what degree do PE preservice teachers apply SRL strategies in their learning? (3) How do PE preservice teachers employ SRL strategies during their field-based teaching practices? And, (4) do PE preservice teachers’ achievement goals predict the use of SRL strategies? In addition, one question preceded the four above-mentioned: Do the measures of the Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scales (CMLSS) demonstrate acceptable psychometric properties among PE preservice teachers? This is to examine construct validity and score reliability of the CMLSS through factor analyses. Data were collected among 419 preservice teachers from five Texas physical education teacher education (PETE) programs. Instruments included a biographical data questionnaire, the CMLSS, the 2x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ), two open-ended questions, and an interview protocol. All items on the CMLSS and the AGQ were on a 7-point Likert scale. Preservice teachers filled out the questionnaires in 20 minutes, and 11 of them participated in a semi-structured interview. The interview lasted for 20 minutes and was audiotaped. Regarding psychometric properties of the CMLSS, a modified bifactor model with one general factor and two group factors fit the data well. Score reliability for the general factor was good. Preservice teachers’ degree of SRL strategies use turned out to be at a medium level. The use of learning strategies was predominantly predicted by mastery-approach goals. The preservice teachers described some indicators of SRL, but their definitions were far from complete. Nevertheless, their disclosure of field teaching experiences indicated that PETE programs afforded opportunities for SRL. Based on the results, it is suggested that researchers use the bifactor modeling approach for studies with a large sample; whereas for studies with a small sample, they can calculate a single composite score of all items to represent the overall SRL level. PE teacher educators should promote SRL among preservice teachers, particularly start with explicit instruction. To facilitate SRL strategies use, a learning environment focusing on mastery can be created. Future research can examine the CMLSS’ bifactor structure in other populations and how SRL strategies determine student academic achievement.
Liu, Jiling (2016). Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Achievement Goals among Physical Education Preservice Teachers. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from