The Impact of Larval Digestion of Different Manure Types by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia Illucens, (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on Volatile Emissions and Corresponding Adult Attraction
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The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is a large, non-pest species whose larvae (BSFL) are known to consume a variety of decaying organic materials. This ability is being pursued for industrialization as a means to recycle wastes and produce protein for use as food and feed. BSFL were reared under laboratory conditions on poultry, swine, and dairy manure at rates of 18.0 and 27.0g every other day until 40% reached the postfeeding stage. Volatile emissions were collected and analyzed from freshly thawed manure (control) as well as the digested waste when 90% of the BSFL reached the prepupal stage. Volatiles were also collected from manure not inoculated with BSFL and held under similar conditions until 90% of the BSFL had reached the prepupal stage in the treated manure (non-digested). Manure samples were analyzed for relative amounts of nine odorous compounds: phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, 3-methylindole, propanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid and pentanoic acid. BSFL reduced emissions of all compounds by 87% or greater. Complete reductions (i.e. 100%) in relative amounts of compounds were observed for propanoic acid, 2-methly in BSFL digested poultry manure, phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole and all five acids in BSFL digested swine manure and 4-methylphenol, indole, 3-methylindole and all five acids in BSFL digested dairy manure. This study was the first to identify volatile emissions from manure colonized by BSFL and compare to those found in uncolonized manure. These data demonstrate additional benefits to using BSFL as a cost effective and environmentally-safe means of livestock manure management in comparison to current methods.
Beskin, Kelly Virginia (2016). The Impact of Larval Digestion of Different Manure Types by the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia Illucens, (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on Volatile Emissions and Corresponding Adult Attraction. Master's thesis, Texas A & M University. Available electronically from